South Mountain by Rick Reeve

South Mountain by Rick Reeve
South Mountain by Rick Reeve depicting the wounding of General Garland

Saturday, August 28, 2010

Rode's Fallen Alabamians

While we study the war, its battles, the strategies and tactics used, the weaponry, and the home front, we really don't look at the casualty lists as a reminder of what this war cost. Over the next few months and whenever i get a chance, I am going to compile as complete a casualty listing as I possibly can with the resources available to me. I feel that the best way to remember the casualties is by putting names to the numbers. We can say that here at South Mountain, both sides lost a combined 6,000 men but by putting names to the numbers, I feel the battle becomes more personal. It becomes more real when you know who these men were and what price they paid. My first installment of this project is that of Brigadier General Robert Rodes. Rodes men deployed and held the Pennsylvania Reserves under George Meade at bay for nearly three hours before Union numbers forced them to break. The casualty figures are for four of Rode's regiments. The 3rd Alabama has no records that I am readily aware or are readily available to me for this list.

Brigadier General Robert Rodes (Commanding 5 regiments)

Killed: 61
Wounded: 139
Captured/Missing­­­: 151
Total: 351

3rd Alabama (Colonel Cullen A. Battle, commanding)

Casualties Unknown

5th Alabama (Major E. L. Hobson, commanding)

Company A:
Lieutenant L.S. Chitwood
Private J.P. Cohran
Private W.E. Cook
Private Jas. Farrier
Private J.L. Hems

Company B:
Private George Wright
Private W. T. Vaughan

Company C:
Private T.C. Stalsworth
Lieutenant John Burns
Private J.W. Butler
Private J.R. Mc auis
Sergeant W.H. Watkins
Corporal C.C. Nettles
Private W.E. Cree
Private J.L. Ch_n
Private H. Cumby
Private W.A. Dudley
Private W.N. Deke
Private D.S. Dubuse
Private F.F. Funklea
Private C.L. Hutio
Private W.E. Leslie
Private A.C. McInnis
Private W.R. Norwood
Private J.L. Nixon
Private John Wiggins
Private John Watson

Company D:
Private W.B. Moorman
Private D.G. Williams
Private F.E. Bayol
Private C.W. Hafner
Captain J.W. Williams
Sergeant W.D. Witherspoon
Sergeant J.F. Christian
Corporal T.A. Frierson?
Private Jas. Griggs
Private James Burton
Private R.B. Price
Private P.D. Webb
Private I.C. McGehee
Private David Barnum

Company E:
Sergeant S.C. Coleman
Sergeant J.R. Colgin
Private I.H. Henderson
Private W.C. Watson
Private P.P. May

Company F:
Private T.A. Carson
Private P. Blount
Private J.S. Garrett
Sergeant J.N. Andrews
Sergeant D.M. Bitt? Hitt?
Corporal W.J. Wilson
Private Jas. Burritt
Private Thomas Chi?helm
Private P. Castigan
Private W.H. Hatcher
Private J.T. Holmes
Private J.T. Johnson
Private O. Marrow
Private H.O. Swan

Company G:
Lieutenant J.N. Craig
Private T.N. Gee
Private J.H. Holmes
Private W.E. Matthews
Private John A. McCauley

Company H:
Private Wilson Williams
Private S.W. Hood
Private J.D. Ball
Lieutenant S.P. Do?s
Lieutenant D.N. Smith
Sergeant M.F. Wakefield
Sergeant E.C. Wallis
Sergeant A. Burgin
Corporal J.O. Hawthorn
Private W.A. Burgin
Private G.W. Ballard
Private J.A. C?leman
Private L.S. Duncan
Private B.F. D?rrow
Private F.M. Ellis
Private J.L. Gate
Private J.J. Moorhead
Private G.T. Spruill
Private J.A. Taylor
Private J.M. Gahav
Private J.M. Woodward

Company I:
Private J.B. Noble
Private W.H. Daughtry
Private N.G. Finley
Private W. Knight
Private G. Shepherd
Private W.L. Williams
Private Mioleton?
Private E. Herron
Private John Lee
Private J.B. Nixon
Private J.G. Spinks
Private J.M. Tucker
Private G.W. Williams
Private W. Buckalow
Private W.F. Woodard
Private J.M. Williamson

Company K:
Private Thomas Kendrick
Private Oscar Willy?
Private William McCarty
Lieutenant J.M. Gilchrist
Corporal G.B. Deiskler
Corporal J.F. Martin
Private G. Maynard
Private Charles Russell
Private R. Savage
Private Ben Herbert
Private R.H. McCall
Private Catlett Murms?
Private A.D. Royen

6th Alabama (Colonel John B. Gordon, commanding)

Company A
Corporal W. Brown
Private S. Jones
Private S. Jackson
Private J. Crawford
Private H.M. Goodie
Private W. Bowie
Private W. Sheffield
Private J. Whitehead
Private W. Whilno?
Private A. Jones
Corporal J. Hayes
Private Z. Carter

Company B
Private T.A. Trawick?

Company C
Captain Greene
Corporal Craf??
Captured/ Missing:
Private B.H. Campbell

Company D
Sergeant G.W. Smith
Private C.C. Dugger
Private J. Bartis
Private J. Chadwick
Sergeant J.G. Carroll

Company E
Private John McManus
Private Ben McCain
Private E. Hogan
Lieutenant J.S. Bryant
Corporal C.W. Garrett
Private W.T. No?man
Private D.C. Leary
Private O.W. Br?burg

Company F
Sergeant D.L. Kennon
Private R.N. Harrison
Private C.M. Downing
Lieutenant D. Pitts
Sergeant D.G. Madden
Sergeant O.D. Smith
Corporal J.F. Bishop
Corporal J.D. Duncan
Corporal H.J. Sharp
Private J.W. Broley
Private J.B. Lacy
Private T.W. H?guly
Private A.J. Smith
Private T.J. Ward
Private D.B. Poer

Company G
Sergeant Hall
Sergeant Whetstone
Private R. Matley
Private J. Carter
Private H. Carter
Private Ben Taylor
Private L. Howser
Private R. Alexander
Private S. Rodgers
Lieutenant Golson
Lieutenant G.W. Thompson
Corporal W.W. Chavers
Private S.J. Jones
Private N. Durden
Private R. Caver
Private S. Heath?
Private R. Golson
Private Jas. Herman
Private J. Shelby
Private F. Davis
Private Collins
Private L.M. Whetstone
Private R.F. Avery
Private C.C. Robinson
Private T.J. Langford
Private C.H. Golson
Private N. Billingsea

Company H
Sergeant J. Haley
Sergeant J. Cary
Sergeant J. Karney
Corporal J. Maxwell
Private Burk
Private A.W. Maxwell
Private L. Steed
Private O. Galloway
Private J. Maxwell
Private T. Shelton
Private J. Martin

Company I
Private Portis
Private Hill
Private Mills
Private Hicks
Private Threadwell

Company K
Captain Culver
Private J.C. Guilford
Private N. Griffin
Private H.E. Chi?y
Corporal W.W. Richards
Private H.L. Hill
Private William Payne
Private N. Lowery

Company L
C.E.T. Jones
Lieutenant A.A. Scott
Private A.W. Humphries
Private W.H. English
Private A.H. Moore
Corporal W.H. Crawford

Company M
Private Thomas Brodax
Private John S?ellgrover
Private H. De?ne

12th Alabama ( Colonel Bristor Gayle, commanding)

Missing: Col. B.B. Gayle

Company A
Sergeant Alex Portiers
Private J. Kearns
Private J. Clark
Private J. Carney
Private J. Polis
Private J. Starke

Company B
Private S.A. Burton
Private W.A.L Veazey
Private D.H. Hagans
Lieutenant H.W. Cox
Private S.H. Veazey
Private I. Bridges
Private J.T. B?ce

Company C
Private J. Schusten
Private R. Jones
Private J. Hogan

Company D
Private J.C. Johnson
Private J.G. Wheeler
Sergeant William Lisson

Company E
Private John A Mikles
Private J.D. Sutherland

Company F
Corporal A.G. Howard
Private Jas. Patterson
Lieutenant R.E. Park
Private John Attaway
Private Thomas R?sterson
Private D. Oswalt

Company G
Corporal A.G. Grizzle
Private G.W. Burns?
Private Jas. Posey
Private Abner Riggine?
Private Jordan White
Private B.E. Beril
Sergeant J. Dudley
Private S.V. Mitchell
Private J. Stephens

Company H
Sergeant A. Roper
Private L. Hall
Private J. Hamilton
Private H. Posey
Private C. Runmels
Private J.R. Allsion

Company I
Lieutenant E.H. Jones
Corporal W. Thomas
Private D. Fittsche
Sergeant P.L. Myers
Private J. Williams
Private O. Whitaker
Private P Seigmundt

Company K
Private J. Hewitt
Private J.N. Wood
Private E.M. Cobb
Private J. Allen
Private J.T. Brown
Sergeant J.R. O’Neal
Corporal B.F. Marsh
Private W.F. Osborne?
Private W.F. Winslett
Private J. Winslett
Private R. McIntosh

26th Alabama ( Colonel Edward A. O’Neal, commanding)

Colonel Edward A. O’Neal
Major Raymond P. Reddon, M.D.

Company A:
3rd Sergeant Wiley S. Enis
4th Sergeant Jonathan E. Ayres
Private Francis M. Black
Private Wilmington M. Hill
Private Albert Kelley (Captured also)
Private Stephen A. McGinnis (Captured also)
Private Carson H. Moore (Captured Also)
Private James Townsend
Private D. Newton Yarby

Company B:
Corporal Joseph H. Bounds
Corporal W.T. Ridout
Private Young Thrift
Private John B. Garrison
Private C.M. Smith (Captured also)
Private J.R. Beauchamp

Company C:
Private John B. Garrison
Private C.M. Smith (Captured also)
Private J.R. Beauchamp

Company D:
1st Sergeant J.P Gideon
3rd Sergeant Albert Ayres
Corporal David Robison
Private David Wheeler

Company E:
1st Sergeant Pleasant Reed (Captured also)
Private John F.M. Corbell

Company F:
Corporal I.C. Lively
Corporal James C. Sedgely (Captured also)

Company G:
2nd Sergeant William A. Parsons
Private Thomas C. Forester
Private William J. Taylor
Private James H. Dobbins (Deserted)

Company F:
Private Samuel P. Brown
Private Henry J. Glasscock
Private James S. Robertson
Private J.W. Stanton
Corporal Henry W. Miller (Captured also)
Private Samuel M. Frazier (Captured also)
Private James A. Hill
Private William C. Hill, Sr. (Captured also)
Private M. Daniel Howell (Captured also)
Private Harley McKay
Private Henry L. Tucker (Captured also)

Company I:
Private John H. Davis
Private Benjamin Papizan
Corporal Moses W. Sykes (Captured also)
Private John W.F. Jones
Private Peter J. Gilpin
Private Augustus Beard (Captured)
Private Rueben Davis

Company K
Private James R. Smith
Captain Frank M. Smith
3rd Sergeant C.C. Pollard
4th Sergeant Francis W. Smith
2nd Corporal William A.J. Kemp
Corporal Ned Miller
Corporal William P. Smith
Private James B. Hudson (Captured also)
Private William w. Smith
Private Balaam J. Smith

Sunday, August 22, 2010

"Hell is empty and all the devils are here." : The Morning Struggle for Fox's Gap

( Fox's Gap with the Daniel Wise Farmhouse to the right)

The morning of September 14, 1862 dawned crisp and cool. Unknown to either side, the men of Jacob Cox's Kanawha Division or Samuel Garland's Confederate brigade, they would be the spark that ignited the first major battle on northern soil during the American Civil War.

On the morning of the 14th, the Kanawha division of the IX Corps under the command of Brigadier General Jacob Cox is encamped near Middletown, Maryland after assisting Alfred Pleasonton's cavalry breakthrough at Braddock's Gap and advance to the base of South Mountain along the National Pike before being ordered back to Middletown. Cox's men awake to the sound of reveille early in the morning and many manage to prepare a quick breakfast before they are ordered onto the National Pike in preparation for their march on South Mountain. At 6 AM, Cox's men are underway. They are the support for a reconnaisance by Pleasonton's Cavalry against Turner's Gap, the main thouroughfare over the mountain. As he accompanies his lead brigade under Colonel Eliakim Scammon up the National Pike, he comes across Colonel Augustus Moor of the 36th Ohio, who had been captured in Frederick as the vanguard of the Union Army entered the city on September 12. Moor had been released on parole and was walking towards Frederick to await exchange. Cox is surprised by Moor's appearance and the two strike up a conversation. Cox tells Moor that he is advancing against the mountain, and Moor exclaims, " My God! Be Careful!". Knowing he had said to much, Moor quickly moves on towards Frederick but the warning is enough for General Cox, he orders up the brigade of Colonel George Crook and sends for reinforcements from the remainder of the IX Corps. Jacob Cox is preparing for a heavy fight.

Colonel Moor's warning to Cox dealt with the division of Major General Daniel Harvey Hill. Hill had been in position with his division around Boonsboro, Maryland watching the passes in the mountain, watching the roads to the south for any Union forces that may escape from Harpers Ferry, and protecting the armies reserve artillery and supplies. On the 13th, as Confederate Cavalry under the command of Major General James Ewell Brown Stuart are pushed back to South Mountain, Stuart requests that Hill send an infantry brigade to support his cavalry against what he believes is only some Union cavalry and infantry. Hill orders up two brigades under Brigadier General Samuel Garland and Colonel Alfred Colquitt. He also brings up the artillery battalion of Colonel Allen S. Cutt's. Colquitt was ordered down to the eastern base of the mountain. On the night of the 13th, Colquitt would move his men up and down the mountainside in an attempt to find the perfect position for defense. Cutt's Artillery was position in the fields opposite the Mountain House, D.H. Hill's headquarters, and pointed towards the Fox's Gap area. The Sumter Artillery under the command of Captain John Lane was detached from Cutt and ordered into position to support Colquitt, going into a position straddling the National Pike near the Mountain House that commanded the National Pike as it approached Turner's Gap. Garland's brigade would encamp at the western base of the mountain, within easy distance to support Colquitt if he comes under pressure from Union forces. Later that night, Hill is standing at Turner's Gap and he can see the numerous camp fires of the Union Army and he immediately knows he faces more than just a couple brigades of infantry and cavalry.

On the morning of the 14th, as Cox's men begin preparing for their march, General Hill is doing his own personal reconnaissance at Turner's gap. He moves with his staff down the Wood Road, an farm lane along the crest of the mountain connecting Turner's and Fox's Gap. After he goes about 3/4 of a mile down the Wood Road, he hears wagon wheels, orders being shouted, and and hoof beats. As Hill continues along the road, a shell explodes nearby and Hill quickly retreats to the Mountain House with his staff. Upon arriving at his Headquarters, Garland's brigade is arriving and Hill immediately orders Garland to move down the Wood Road and retake Fox's Gap. Garland moves his brigade as quickly as possible towards Fox's Gap. Hill also ordered the battery of Captain James Bondurant to support Garland. Garland arrives at the gap roughly between 8 and 8:30 that morning and finds the 5th Virginia Cavalry, Thomas Rosser commanding, and John Pelham's battery of Horse Artillery. General Stuart had not reported to Hill about the placement of cavalry at the gap and fortunately for the Confederates, a friendly fire situation was avoided. Garland deploys his brigade in the fields of the Daniel Wise Farm. He post the 5th Virginia and Pelham's artillery to cover his extreme right. He placed the 5th North Carolina as his right flanks and at intervals he placed the 12th North Carolina, in support of Bondurant's battery, the 23rd North Carolina, 20th North Carolina, and he placed the 13th North Carolina on his left, resting his line along the Old Sharpsburg Road. Garland was in position and waiting the Union advance.

The division of Jacob Cox has been marching since 6 AM and as it reaches the small hamlet of Bolivar, Confederate Artillery from Turner's Gap begins firing upon the column. Cox's moves his division to the left up the Old Sharpsburg Road in an attempt to outflank Turner's Gap. His division, with Eliakim Scammon in the lead, is now on a direct route towards Fox's Gap. As he nears the gap, Cutt's battalion of Confederate artillery opens upon the column and again Cox is forced to move his division again to the left. He pushes Scammon's brigade a mountain trail called the Loop Road. The 23rd Ohio, Lieutenant Rutherford B. Hayes commanding, is in the lead with, in order respectfully, the 12th Ohio, and 30th Ohio.

Scammon moves his brigade up the steep incline for about a mile when he orders them into battlelines. He orders his regiments to through out skirmishers and prepare for an advance. Captain James Bondurant notices the Union forces and requests that the 5th and 12th North Carolina to put out a skirmish line to support his battery. The 12th, number barely 100 men, refuses to do so but the 5th, under Colonel Duncan McRae, does deploy skirmishers. The skirmish lines of the 23rd Ohio and 5th North Carolina collide at about 9 AM and the Battle of South Mountain is under way.

McRae moves his regiment to support his skirmishers but as the 23rd Ohio is advancing, the weight of Union numbers begins to push the North Carolinians back. Many of the men in the 5th North Carolina were new recruits and with this being their first taste of battle, many begin to flee. McRae seeing these recruits fleeing pulls his regiment back to its original position. This opens up the front of Bondurant's battery to the fire of the 23rd Ohio and Hayes orders his men to fix bayonets and charge. With minie ball's filling the air, Bondurant orders each one his guns to fire one round and retreat by prolong to the Ridge Road. This move is done successfully and Bondurant gets his guns safely to a position near the Daniel Wise farmhouse. The 12th North Carolina, Captain Shugan Snow commanding, moves to support the McRae and the two regiments manage to hold against the successive attacks of the 23rd Ohio. During one of these assaults, Rutherford B. Hayes is wounded rather severly in the left arm. He would remain in command of his regiment until loss of blood causes him to faint.

To the left of this intense firefight, the 12th Ohio, Colonel Carr B. White commanding, begins its attack against Colonel Daniel H. Christie's 23rd North Carolina. Christie had advanced his regiment forward out of the ridge road to take up a position along a stonewall in his front. White formed his regiment in line of battle and immediately advanced against the 23rd. The fire from the Confederates stalled the Union advance. The last regiment of Scammon's brigade, Colonel Hugh Ewing's 30th Ohio, deployed on the right near the Old Sharpsburg Road and opposed the 13th North Carolina, under the command of Lieutenant Colonel Thomas Ruffin, Jr. By 10 O'Clock the fighting at Fox's Gap is well under way and the Union assault has been stalled by Garland's brigade.

General Garland is confident that his right will hold off the heavy Union attacks and he moves to his embattled left where the 13th North Carolina is beginning to waver. As Garland arrives, Lt. Colonel Ruffin tells Garland that this is no place for him to be. Ruffin rememebers telling Garland that, "It is my duty to be here with my regiment, but you could better superintend your brigade from a safer position." Just that moment, a minie ball slams into Ruffins hip and he requests that Garland find a suitable commander for his regiment. Garland turns to give the order when he two his struck by a minie ball. He falls mortally wounded and he is taken to the Mountain House where he would succumb to his wounds later that day. Command of the brigade falls to Colonel Duncan McRae, but he would not be able to get a handle on this situation.

At this point, Cox orders in brigade of George Crook. He moves the 23rd Ohio, now under the command of Major James Comly, towards the left flank of the 12th Ohio. The 11th Ohio of Crook's Brigade, commanded by Lt. Colonel Augustus Coleman, is ordered to the left of the 23rd Ohio. The 11th attacks the faltering 5th Virginia and the 5th North Carolina breaking the Confederate line by 10:30 that morning.

The 36th Ohio, under Lieutenant Melvin Clarke, is ordered to close the gap between the 12th Ohio and the 30th Ohio. At the same time, a section of Union artillery under Lieutenant George Crome is ordered into position on the right of the 36th and it opens fire upon the 20th North Carolina under Colonel Alfred Iverson. Iverson hand picks several sharpshooters who take up a position to the right of Crome's guns. They systematically pick off the Union artilleryman to the point where Crome must help service his guns. While in the act of loading, Crome his mortally wounded and his artilleryman flee from their guns leaving them open for the taking. The sharpshooters attempt to capture the guns, but the fire from the 30th and 36th Ohio is to much for them to bear and the guns are never captured.

It was at this point in the fighting that the 23rd and 12th Ohio charged into the 23rd North Carolina shattering the regiment and forcing it to flee in confusion. After this was accomplished, they turn their attention to Iverson's 20th North Carolina who is pinned down by fired from the 36th Ohio. Iverson's men stood their ground defiantely before they two were routed. It was at this point that a Private Frederick Foard remembered:

" As I pulled my trigger with careful aim throwing a musket ball and three buck shot into them at not more than twenty yards distant I could see dimly through the dense sulphurous battle smoke and the line from Shakespeare’s Tempest flitted across my brain: Hell is empty and all the devils are here"

All that was standing now between the the Ohioan's and Fox's Gap was the regiment of Thomas Ruffin. Colonel Ruffin had managed to retain command of his regiment. By this time, the 30th, 36th, and 12th Ohio had converged against Ruffin's small regiment and were threating to cut them off from Confederate reinforcements that were arriving. Ruffin, with the support of his subordinates, orders three successive charges agains the three Unio regiments. Amazingly, these charges prove to be successful and Ruffin's men safely escape the trap they were in.

The 13th links up with a portion of Brigadier General George B. Anderson's brigade, the 2nd and 4th North Carolina under the command of Colonel C.C. Tew, as they come up the Wood Road. By 11, Cox's men are in possession of the gap and advancing along the ridgeline towards Turner's Gap. The combined force under Tew counterattacks towards Cox's men halting their advance and even making Cox believe that a large Confederate force has arrived in front of him. The Ohioan's repulse the attack but Cox pulles them back to Wise's South Field to await reinforcements from the remainder of the IX Corps. By 12, the fighting at Fox's Gap has died down and a lull occurs as both sides rush reinforcements to the gap.

The morning action at Fox's gap is remembered by some of the men who took part in it as some of the most severe and savage combat of the entire war. One Confederate rememebers that it was the only time during his service, that he witnessed a man bayoneted by the enemy. The confusion that was caused by the terrain and smoke created by the musket and artillery fired added an even more terrifying aspect to the fighting that took place that morning. Union losses in this early morning fight number roughly 100 killed, over 300 wounded, and 86 missing. Confederate losses were General Garland killed and no more than half his brigade killed, wounded, or missing out of 1,000 men who initially went into the battle. The afternoon phase of the fight would prove to be just as savage and even more blood would be spilled..

"Keep up good hearts, I am in God's hands."

These are a couple letters written home by 2nd Lieutenant Cadmus M. Amoss of the Cobb Legion from Georgia. The first is written just moments before Amoss’ unit crosses the Potomac into Maryland. He writes about his health, the march, and his belief that the war can be won. He would be wounded, shot through both lungs, during the ensuing campaign through Maryland. He would be hospitalized in Burkittsville, Md near the Crampton’s Gap Battlefield where he would have an Episcopal minister write one last letter home for him. The second letter was written by the Episcopal minister who had come to tend to wounded following the battles in western Maryland. 2nd Lieutenant Amoss would succumb to his wounds on September 27, 1862.

Leesburg VA
Sept. 4th 1862

My Dear Georgia
A long time has elapsed since I have had an opportunity of writing to you and even now I am forced to write in great haste. Our Division (General McLaws) arrived at this place last evening after a long and tedious march of nine days, I stood the march much better than I suppose and am in pretty good health with the exception of being perished out and a prospect ahead of being barefooted. Dont let this alarm you for half the army is in that delightful condition. As for getting anything to eat from the government that is out of the question for they haven’t got it. Our mel bought enough yesterday to last us several days and we are in high spirits. I suppose Georgia you would like to know what we are doing away up here and where we are going. Well the supposition is that we cros the Potomac in about two hours and go down on the side to Washington. Something important will trasprie very soon and it would not surprise me at all if we did go. I agree very much being so situated as not to receive or find letters to you. If we cros over on the other side there is not telling when I can write to you again. The last letter I received from you, you spoke of wanting some money. We have not been paid off since I came back and even if we had you letter came too late for me to send you any from Hanover. You will probibly need it before I have a chance of sending it so get as much as you want from the bank and I will replace it. Tell pa to . . . for you or he will let you have it ither. I have no idea when we will take up winter quarters if we remain here we will suffer very much from cold. If we succeed in the campaign that is now going on up here, we will have every reason to feel grateful and I think if the Yankees don’t give up the contest they are in a fair way to ruin themselves. If Washington falls the Yankees will be humbled and their attacks will become more feeble. I have only a few minutes in which to conclude. Good bye my dear wife for the present. I do hope it will not be long before I hear from you again. I will write to you the first chance I have. Give my love to all the family. Kiss our baby for me.

Your affectionate Husband
C M Amoss

Burkittsville, MD
Mr B.B. Amos Sept 26th 1862
Dear Sir
I came from Baltimore on last Saturday to look after the confederate wounded rough this place on the fight of the 14th. I am sorry to say that among the number I find your son Lieut C M Amos. He was shot through the lungs, the ball striking his spine and causing a paralysis of the lower extremities. From the character of the wound you will appreciate the danger to which he was now exposed. He has and will confine to receive my attention. You will be gratified I am sure to learn that in view of speech he is calm & resigned. I have been much with him & he seems to place his reliance upon our blessed Rescuer who I . . . will accept his reliance & comfort him with the presence of his holy spirit even until the end. I shall remain with him until the crisis is over & should he die will see that he is interred in such a way as to justify at some future time his removal. He sends his warmest love to you all & especially his dear wife and little boy. I give you his exact words when I say “ Keep up good hearts, I am in God’s hands.” May God bless and comfort you all
Yours most-truly
H Stringfellow
Minister of Protestant-Episcopal Church

Monday, August 16, 2010

Crampton's Gap: Twilight Assault

(VI Corps assault at Crampton's Gap, Harpers Weekly)

In the late afternoon and early evening of the 14th of September, Major General William B. Franklin's massive VI Corps, numbering roughly 12,000 men made the attack that would prove to be the tipping point in Lee's invasion of Maryland. Opposing him was a ragtag Confederate force of infanry, cavalry, and artillery that numbered at the most 2,000 men but unfortunately for the Confederates, these men were not all present at the gap at any given moment.
In the early morning hours of the 14th, with orders in hand from the Army of the Potomac's commander George B. McClellan, the VI Corps under the command of Major General William B. Franklin breaks camp about 3 miles east of Jefferson, Maryland and begins the march towards Burkittsville, Maryland at the base of South Mountain. The orders in Franklin's possession call for him to lead his corps against Crampton's Gap with the goal of capturing it, advancing on Rohrersville, and advancing into the rear of Confederate General's Lafeyette McLaws division on Maryland Heights lifting the siege situation at Harpers Ferry.

Franklin's Corps numbers about 13,000 men of all arms and it is divided into two divisions under Major General's Henry Slocum and William F. Smith and a third division under Major General Darius Couch that has been attached. The division's of Slocum and Smith arrive in Jefferson about mid-morning and Franklin orders a halt to allow Couch's division a chance to catch up with the rest of the corps. After a waiting a couple hours, Franklin recieves word the Couch is to far to the rear to hold up the march any longer so he orders the corps to advance on Burkittsville where they'll arrive around noon. Once the VI Corps reaches Burkittsville, Franklin allows his men to have lunch while he confers with his division and brigade commanders about the plan for the assault.

Meanwhile, up on the mountain, a small Confederate brigade under Brigadier General Paul Semmes was in position at Brownsville Pass about a mile south of Crampton's Gap. It was here the Semmes believed the main effort to relieve Harpers Ferry would be attempted and with this think he placed his brigade here along with Light Battery A, 1st North Carolina Artillery under Captain Basil Manley, the Richmond Fayette Artillery under Lieutenant William Clopton, and the Magruder Light Artillery under Captain Thomas Page, Jr. Semme's artillery support consisted of 8 pieces. Semme's posted the 10th Georgia Infantry on the Rohrersville Road as a picket and on the 13th, the brigade of Colonel William Parham was ordered by General McLaws to report to Semmes. Upon arriving, Semmes order Parham, along with his artillery support, to Crampton's Gap to support the cavalry brigade of Colonel Thomas Munford and Captain Roger Chews battery of Horse Artillery. To finish out the Confederate forces that would participate in the defense of Crampton's Gap, McLaws ordered the brigade of Howell Cobb to encamp on the western base of South Mountain to support Semmes and Munford if called upon.

At Crampton's Gap, Colonel Thomas Munford was in command of the 2nd and 12th Virginia Cavalry, two extremely undersized cavalry regiments and the battery of Captain Roger Chew's Horse Artillery. Munford had set up pickets along the road leading from Jefferson, Maryland and has the VI Corps advanced, Union Cavalry pushed Munford's pickets back to Burkittsville and eventually Munford pulled his men, numbering 200 at the most, back to a stonewall along the Mountain Church Road at the base of South Mountain to face the coming Union attack. Chew's horse artillery and the artillery posted at Brownsville Pass fired upon the Union forces as they began to move out of Burkittsville. The arrival of Parham's brigade, the 6th, 12th, and 16th Virginia and the Portsmouth Artillery helped raise the Confederate number to 800 along the stonewall but it was still woefully to few to combat an entire corps of Union infantry. Munford sends out couriers to Semmes and Cobb calling for their assistance.

In Burkittsville, Franklin's men are under the fire from Brownsville Pass and this fire causes Franklin to believe that the mountain is heavily fortified by the Confederates. With the elevation of the mountain, the use of artillery against the gap is futile and he resorts to a head-on infantry assault. He plans to use the division of Henry Slocum as the spearhead for the assault while the division of William F. Smith will be in support. Slocum is uncertain about how to go about the assault so he calls upon one of his brigade commanders, Colonel Joseph Bartlett, to devise the plan of attack. Bartlett becomes frustrated with his superiors because of their lack of initiative in planning the attack but, Bartlett is given the final decision on the attack plan. His plan calls for Slocum's division to attack up the right side of the Burkittsville Road leading to the mountain with the divisions three brigades aligned one behind the other. In the front will be his own brigade consisting of the 5th Maine, the 16th, 27th, and 121st New York, and the 96th Pennsylvania regiments, in the second line will be Brigadier General John Newton's brigade (the 18th, 31st, and 32nd New York regiments and the 95th Pennsylvania. In the final line will be the New Jersey Brigade under Colonel Alfred Torbert. To support the assault, Captain Emory Upton's First Division artillery would bombard the Confederate positions along the base of the mountain.

Bartlett's assault kicked off at about 4 o'clock and almost immediately it came under fire from Confederate artillery on the mountain and the Confederates behind the stonewall. Bartlett's brigade's advanced ground to a halt about 300 yards away from the stonewall and the contest just turned into a slugfest between the opposing lines. The brigades of Newton and Torbert were moved to Bartlett's left and right flanks respectively allowing for more firepower to come to bear upon the Confederates. Munford, seeing his men falling all around him, again sent couriers to Semmes and Cobb requesting support. Once General Cobb recieved the Munford's request, he immediately put his brigade ( 16th and 24th Georgia, Cobb's Legion, 15th North Carolina, and Troup (Georgia) Artillery) on the road to Crampton's Gap, about 2 miles from his encampment in Pleasant Valley. The deployment of the two remaining brigades into the front line began to put more and more pressure on Munfords weakening line. The brigade of Colonel Parham began to falter under the Union pressure. Cobb's brigade arrived at the gap a little after 5 o'clock and many of the men let out the high pitch Rebel Yell. Cobb reported to Colonel Munford who informed of him the situation and promptly pulled his cavalry out of the fight. The situation as Cobb arrived was one of extreme peril. The Confederate line had halted the advance of the Union center but, the deployment of Newton's and Torbert's brigades extended the Union flanks and allowed the Confederate flanks to be overlapped. Immediately, Cobb ordered the Cobb Legion and 16th Georgia down the Burkittsville road to support the faltering Confederate Right. He send the 24th Georgia straight down the mountain side to support the center and put the 15th North Carolina into position along the Arnoldstown Road towards the Confederate left. With the arrival of Cobb's men, it seemed the Confederates could hold the gap until nightfall but, Bartlett had different plans for the attack.

At the base of the mountain, Bartlett heard the terrifying sound of the Rebel Yell over the musketry and knew that Confederate reinforcements had arrived at the gap and the issue needed to be pressed at once. He ordered his brigade to fix bayonets and charge the stonewall. With a loud, prolonged shout, as one Union private remembers, Bartlett's brigade rushed forward to the stonewall and instantly, the Confederate line disintegrated. Parham's Brigade broke and retreated back up the mountain. Bartlett's men, along with the Newton's and Torbert's, pushed up the mountain side.

The Cobb Legion under the command of Lieutenant Jefferson M. Lamar, with the 16th Georgia in support, advanced down the mountain side and came upon the men of Parham retreating up the mountainside. Lamar immediately saw Union troops in pursuit and cried to his men to follow him in a counterattack against them. Lamar charged his horse forward and promptly found the maneuver had been foolish and the steep grade of the hillside caused rider and horse to fall to the ground. Lamar, unphased, leapt to his feet and continued leading his men. He put his men into position on the flank of the Union attacking column and unleashed volley after volley into their ranks. Unknown to him, Torbert's brigade had collapsed the Confederate left and was advancing up the Burkittsville Road, right into the right flank and rear of the Cobb Legion. Out of nowhere, the New Jersey Brigage unleashes a volley into the Legion's flank. Lamar knows that he is in a situation that his men cannot stand long against but he must hold because if he retreats, the only way out is through the ranks of the 16th Georgia on his left. A movement back up the mountain would cause further panic and the Confederates would not be able to hold the gap. Lamar is shot in the leg, a severe painful wound, but he refuses the pleas from his subordinates that they should withdraw. Eventually, Lamar agrees to a withdrawal but only on the condition if he could be help to his feet so he could give the order. His staff helps him but just as he's giving the order, he is mortally wounded in the chest. His men gather around him and begin to retreat back up the mountainside taking with the the 16th Georgia. The Confederate grip on the gap is faltering.

Back up at the Gap, Cobb has placed the Troup Artillery in the gap itself with one gun pointed down the Arnoldstown Road and the other down the Burkittsville Road. Also, the 24th Georgia that had advanced straight down the mountainside and run into the same Confederates retreating up the mountain has the Cobb legion. The Georgians retreated in an orderly manner back up the mountain and took up position along the Burkittsville Road. With the 15th North Carolina along the Arnoldstown Road, the Confederates had created a crossfire zone that Union troops would be advancing through. Unfortunately for the Confederates, the New Jersey Brigade, having just routed the Cobb Legion, continued advancing up the Burkittsville Road. They slam into the right flank of the Georgians causing them to panic and break. The 15th North Carolina withdrawals also back to a line forming in a field directly behind the Arnoldstown Road.

With the Confedrates streaming down the mountian, Cobb is frantically attempting to rally what men he can as the Troup Artillery pours double and triple canister into the oncoming Union forces, now nothing but a disorganized mob. Cobb manages to pull together a line but the weight of the Union attack proves to much and it too his routed and pushed down the mountain side. The Troup Artillery retreats frantically down the Burkittsville road into Pleasant Valley but one of their axles on a gun carriage snaps and they are forced to leave it to Union infantry who are right behind them.

By 6:30, the battle is over. Franklin's Corps has captured Crampton's Gap but this only completes a part of McClellan's orders. Franklin was to advanced to Rohrersville cutting off McLaws from Longstreet and Lee in Boonsboro and essentially relieving the siege at Harper's Ferry. Franklin orders his men to go into bivouac at the gap. McLaws recieving word that the gap has fallen, throws up a defensive line across Pleasant Valley awaiting Franklin's attack. It would never come. The next day, Franklin throws out a strong skirmish line to oppose McLaws and Harper's Ferry falls as a result of Franklin not pushing the issue to completion. When Lee recieved word the Confederates had lost the gap, he becomes depressed and sends out orders to his commanders in Maryland to retreat back into Virginia as quickly as possible. In effect, he has ended the Maryland Campaign. Only a messenger from Stonewall Jackson later on the night of the 14th informing Lee that Harpers Ferry will fall does he regain his composure and issue orders for his army to concentrate along the Antietam Creek near Sharpsburg, Maryland. Three days later, Lee and McClellan would fight the bloodiest single day battle of the Civil War.

The losses at Crampton's Gap were not as heavy as at the two northern gaps near Boonsboro, Maryland but the fight was more decisive. Franklin's VI Corps lost 530 men in the attack up the slopes. The Confederates losses are uncertain but it is estimated their loss totaled 873 men.

Sunday, August 15, 2010

South Mountain's Union commanders at Gettysburg

Several Union commanders that lead their troops to victory at South Mountain played important roles in the fight at Gettysburg the following summer. Here are a few.

Brigadier General George Meade: At South Mountain, General Meade commanded the Pennsylvania Reserves division that assaulted Frostown Gap about a mile north of Turner's Gap. His soldiers would eventually break the line of Robert Rodes' Confederates before the terrain and nightfall slowed his advance across the ridge. He would be promoted to Major General and given command of the 5th Corps prior to Chancellorsville. As Lee invaded the North in the Summer of '63, the command of the Army of the Potomac was thrust upon Meade following the resignation of Joseph Hooker from command. Meade would arrive in Gettysburg on the night of July 1st and for the next two days he would outwit Robert E. Lee's attempts to turn his flanks and break through his center. He would be critized for his slow pursuit of Lee during the retreat from Gettysburg but he would retain command of the Army of the Potomac until the end of the war.

Brigadier General John Gibbon: Late in the day of the 14th, Gibbon would lead his brigade against the Confederate defences at Turner's Gap along the National Pike. His brigade would earn its immortal "Iron Brigade" nickname for its fight at Turner's Gap but, his men would not gain possession of gap that night. Gibbon would be promoted and given command of a division in the 2nd Corps, which he would command at Fredericksburg, Chancellorsville, and Gettysburg. He temporarily commanded the 2nd Corps while General Hancock was elevated to command of the Union forces until the arrival of General Meade. On July 3rd, he would command the defense of Cemetery Ridge against Pickett's Charge during which time he would be wounded. He would eventually command a corps in the Army of the James.

Colonel Solomon Meredith: During the fight for Turner's Gap, Colonel Meredith commanded the 19th Indiana in Gibbon's "Iron Brigade". After his advance was stopped cold by two Confederate regiments, he send on company around the Confederate flank to fire upon their flank as he advanced his main line. The attack was successful and it forced the two Confederate regiments to retreat back up the mountain. He would be promoted to command of the Iron Brigade in October and he would lead it into Confederate onslaught on the first day of Gettysburg. His brigade would hold the line and pay a dear price for it in killed and wounded. During the fight, he would also be wounded.

Major General Henry Slocum: At South Mountain, he commanded a division within William Franklin's 6th Corps. His division would be the spearhead of the assault on Crampton's Gap. After a short fight with Confederates, his division charged up the mountain routing the Confederate defenders and capturing the gap. In October, he would be given command of the XII Corps, replacing Joseph K. Mansfield who had been killed at Antietam. He would commanded the corps in the Battle of Fredericksburg and at Chancellorsville he would command the right wing of Hooker's Army which included his corps and the two corps of General's Meade and Hooker. At Gettysburg, he would arrive with his corps at Gettysburg in the evening of July 1st and take up positions on the Union right flank. When Longstreet's assault crashed into the Union left flank and began pushing it back, Meade ordered Slocum to send his entire corps to reinforce the left. Slocum kept one brigade back, that of George S. Greene, and sent the remainder of the corps to the left. Greene's brigade would turn back Ewell's assault on Culp's Hill that night. His corps would return and reoccupy its position on July 3rd pushing out any remaining Confederates.

Wednesday, August 11, 2010

South Mountain's Confederate commanders at Gettysburg

Several of the key players in the combat along the ridges and gaps of South Mountain would survive the battle and accompany the Confederate Army during it's second invasion of the North culminating in the Battle of Gettysburg. Here are just a few that may be of interest.

Brigadier General John Bell Hood : At South Mountain, he commanded a division which consisted of the famous Texas Brigade, under Colonel William T. Wofford, and the brigade of Colonel Evander Law. Hood was under arrest for a getting into an argument with Nathan Evans over captured ambulance wagons following the Battle of Second Manassas. As his division advanced up the mountainside, pleas from the soldiers eventually convinced Robert E. Lee to release Hood from arrest, giving him back his command. They advanced to Turner's Gap and filed down the Wood Road towards Fox's Gap. His division went into line of battle, fixed bayonets and charged into the advancing Union troops of the XI Corps. They halted the Union advance and are credited with mortally wounding the XI Corps commander Jesse Reno. His division would be the rearguard as Lee retreated towards Sharpsburg. At Gettysburg, Hood would command a division with the rank of Major General. Attacking late in the afternoon of the second day, Hood would be wounded by a shell fragment that would cause him to lose the use of his left arm for the rest of his life.

Brigadier General Richard B. Garnett: During the First Corps assault on South Mountain, Garnett commanded the brigade of George Pickett, who was wounded in the Seven Days' Battles. Garnett's men were in Hagerstown when the fighting broke out at Fox's Gap on the morning of September 14th. Garnett's men, along with the rest of James Longstreet's command, made a forced march to Boonsboro. Arriving on at the base of the mountain in the early afternoon, Garnett was rushed to the summit after the Union First Corps had all but broken the Confederate brigade holding the ridges to the left of Turner's Gap. His brigade arrived just in time to help halt the Union division under John Hatch before it could sweep over the mountain. His brigade would be pulled off the mountain that night. At Gettysburg, he would command a brigade in the division of Major General George Pickett and he would fall during the assault on the Union center on July 3rd. His remains would never be identified and he was buried in a mass grave with his men.

Brigadier General James Kemper: At South Mountain, he commanded a brigade in the division of David Rumph Jones. His brigade, like Garnett's was in Hagerstown when hostilities broke out on the mountain. After a forced march, his brigade fell into line to the left of Garnett's and helped repulse John Hatch's Division of Union infantry. His brigade would be pulled off the mountain that night and it would take up position south of Sharpsburg. At Gettysburg, he would still command his brigade and it would be a part of George Pickett's Division. During the assault on July 3rd, Kemper would be wounded severely and captured by Union soldiers. He would be rescued by his men and borne back to Seminary Ridge where he would plead with General Lee that "do full justice for this division for its work today." During the retreat from Gettysburg, he would be captured and held in a Union prison until September when he was exchanged.

Colonel Evander Law: At the fight at South Mountain, he commanded a brigade in Hood's division. During the Confederate counterattack in the fading light at Fox's Gap, Law's brigade would suffer the most losing several men killed, wounded, and captured. At Gettysburg, Law would command an all Alabama brigade in the Confederate assault through the Devils Den and against Little Round Top. Following the wounding of General Hood, Law rose to command of the division but his performance was lacking because he did not surrender command of his brigade. The other brigadiers in the division recalled later that they never recieved any orders from Law. He would keep the division in line over the its hard earned ground on July 3rd.
Colonel Eppa Hunton: Commanded the 8th Virginia in Garnett's brigade during the Battle of South Mountain. His regiment resisted the Union assault of Hatch's division losing 11 men out of 34 in the entire regiment. At Gettysburg, he would lead his regiment against the Union positions on Cemetery hill during Pickett's Charge. He would be wounded and his regiment would lose its flag to the 16th Vermont.

Colonel John B. Gordon: At South Mountain, he would command the 6th Alabama in the brigade of Robert Rhodes. His regiment was deployed as skirmishers and help resist the assault of General George Meade's division against the Frostown Gap. His regiment would help resist the Union advance for nearly three hours until Confederate reinforcements arrived. His regiment would retreat off the mountain that night. At Gettysburg, now holding the rank of Brigadier General, he commanded a brigade in the Jubal Early's division. On the first day, his brigade practically broke the Union line by itself and he requested the surrender of the town and his brigade occupied the town for the remainder of the battle.

Brigadier General Robert Rodes: At South Mountain, he would command the brigade that held Frostown Gap against George Meade's Pennsylvania Reserve Division for nearly three hours. His brigades resistance was called "Rodes Resistance" and earned him alot of credit in the eyes of his superiors. He would be promoted to Major General following Chancellorsville and he command a division at Gettysburg. His division helped drive Union First and Eleventh Corps through the streets of Gettysburg. His division would remain in place for the rest of the battle.

Tuesday, August 10, 2010

"The army has met with a grievous loss. . ."

After fighting a long and bloody stalemate around Fox's Gap on September 14, 1862, Major General Jesse Reno moves up with his staff to get a look at the situation for himself. With daylight fading, it is quite difficult to get a handle on his troops positions and as General Reno's party came within yards of the gap, shots rang out. Immediately, there was the distinct thud of hot lead hitting human flesh and General Reno crumbles in the saddle. One of his staff officers gains control of the General's horse and leads the mortally wounded commander of the Union 9th Corps back down the mountain. Reno would be laid underneath an oak tree where, within the hour, he would succumb to his wound.

Jesse Lee Reno was born on April 20, 1823 in Wheeling, West Virginia to Lewis Thomas and Rebecca Reno. He was the third of eight children the couple would have together. His parents moved the family Franklin, Pennsylvania in the northwestern part of the state. The young Reno would spend his childhood here and he would receive an appointment to the United States Military Academy at West Point in 1842 while living here. in 1846, he would graduate eighth in a class that included future Civil War generals George B. McClellan, Thomas J. Jackson (Stonewall), and George Pickett. He would serve in the Mexican-American War where he would be brevetted a first lieutenant following the Battle of Cerro Gordo and Captain following the battle of Chapultepec.

During the period before the outbreak of the Civil War, Reno would serve in various different capacities. He would teach at West Point, be a member on various ordnance boards, take part in
mapping surveys, and he would serve as the chief of ordnance during Albert Sidney Johnston's Utah Expedition. He would also hold commands at the U.S. Arsenals at Mount Vernon, Alabama, and Leavenworth, Kansas.

In January of 1861, during the secession crisis, Reno was forced to surrender the Mount Vernon Arsenal to the State of Alabama. In April, war broke out and by November, Jesse Reno was commissioned a brigadier general of volunteers and his first command was a brigade in the Carolina Coast expedition under Ambrose Burnside and fought in the fights on Roanoke Island, New Bern, and Camden, North Carolina. Following this expedition, Reno would command a division in the Federal Department of North Carolina until he was recalled to Washington, D.C. in August 1862.

He was appointed major general on August 20 with rank from July 18th, 1862. During the Second Manassas Campaign, he commanded Burnside's IX Corps while General Burnside was in command of the right wing of John Pope's Army of Virginia as it advanced north away from the Rappahannock River. Reno's command would fight well during the Battle of Second Manassas and in the Battle of Chantilly of September 1, 1862. As the Union force retreated into the defences of Washington, D.C., George McClellan was given command of the demoralized force and it was incorporated into the Army of the Potomac with Reno remaining in command of the IX Corps with Burnside given the overall command of the Right Wing of the Army. The Rebel Army crossed into Maryland between September 4-7, 1862 and by the 9th they were concentrated around the city of Frederick, Maryland. Their stay in Maryland would prove to be a short one. Reno's 9th Corp was ordered to move to Leesbourough, Maryland on September 5th and then onward through Damascus and New Market and the corps arrived in the vanguard of the Army of the Potomac at Frederick on September 12th fighting a brief skirmish in the outskirts and streets of Frederick before encamping on the banks of the Monocacy River. On the 13th, the IX Corps moved through Frederick towards Braddock Gap and after Union Cavalry under Alfred Pleasonton cleared the gap, Reno pushed his corps right up to the base of South Mountain. The evening, McClellan recalled Reno's troops back to Middletown where they would encamp for the night.

On the morning of the 14th, the Kanawha Divison under Jacob Cox moved out in a reconnaissance in force towards Turner's Gap along the National Pike. After recieving information that a sizable force of Confederate Infantry was at the gap, Cox filed his division off to the left of the pike and moved up the Old Sharpsburg Road in an attempt to outflank the Turner's Gap position. The lead elements of Cox's men ran into the brigade of General Samuel Garland around 9 in the morning near Fox's Gap and fighting became rather intense with General Garland being mortally wounded. Reno pushed forward the remainder of the IX Corps to the support of Cox at Fox's Gap. The Confederates attempted a counterattack in the afternoon but it was stopped cold and Reno ordered the entire IX Corps to push towards the gap. Reno's men gained possession of the gap before being pushed back by reinforcements from John Bell Hood's division of Confederates.

As light was fading, General Reno moved up the Old Sharpsburg Road with his staff to get a handle on the situation himself and issue orders as needed. As he got close to the gap, picket's from both sides were firing and a volley from the woods was unleashed upon the group. General Reno was struck in the chest of and Major Charles Goodwin assisted the General back down the mountain until the general could be placed on a stretcher. As orderlies carried the general on the stretcher, Reno saw his old friend, one of his brigade commanders, Samuel Sturgis and cried out, "Hallo Sam! I'm Dead". Sturgis heard the voice in such a way that he would not believe that Reno was going to die. Reno also came across one of his division commanders, Orlando Willcox, who Reno confided in that he believed the he had been shot by his own men. Major General Jesse Reno would die of his wounds within an hour underneath a large Oak tree.

The general's body was taken to Boston to his wife and placed within a vault at Trinity Church. His remains would be removed to Oak Hill Cemetery in Georgetown in April 1867. General Reno is memorialized by a monument within a gated area near that site of his wounding on the Fox's Gap Battlefield (above, right). He is also memorialized by the City of Reno, Nevada. The city sprouted up near a silver mine and the settlers of the town voted to name in Reno, in honor of the general. This act caught the notice of President Lincoln who would make Nevada a state in October 1864. Today, Reno memorializes its name sake with a large wooden statue of the general. He is also memorialized by various other places and communities throughout the country including his birthplace of Wheeling, West Virginia.

(Monument in Wheeling, WV)